What are the common pitfalls to avoid when using Gann angle measurement?

What are the common pitfalls to avoid when using Gann angle measurement? The Gann angle is the angle between the bony landmark of the epiphysis of the distal femur and the anatomic femoral axis. When properly performed, the measurement of the Gann angle is an indirect measure of the biomechanical position or alignment of the knee joint.2 When performed without proper technique it can result in the incorrect estimation of the biomechanical position of the knee joint. This may lead to clinically significant knee injuries such as lateral ligament injuries.1,2 Also, secondary joint pathologies, such as patellofemoral pain, may increase due to malalignment. Many factors influence the reliability and validity of Gann angle measurement such as, proper technique and measurement by a qualified person.1,3,4 Therefore, the aim of this review was to identify all common pitfalls when using a method of kinematic alignment called Gann angle measurements. Several anatomical landmarks have been described to measure the Gann angle and the anatomic femoral axis. They may be placed at the intercondylar notch (ICN) or the medial epicondyle (indistinct) (Fig. 1). Also, medial or lateral femoral flares under the patella may be used as the landmark for ICN.1,2 The use of the tip of the lateral epicondyle is not recommended because of the difficulties to find the epicondyle.1,4 The knee is often abducted and flexed when resting for an MRI and the knee flexion find more info sitting to standing may be between 20° and 40°.

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1 This makes it difficult to know if the ICN is on the femoral side or patellar side or where the lateral femoral epicondyle is located precisely on the femur. It may also be useful that the limb be aligned to minimize intra-patient and inter-patient differences in limb alignment. If this is not done, a systematic difference between two scans is generated. Therefore, the patient position has to be optimized at the beginning of visit this website scan to avoid errors due to different anatomical conditions. In conclusion, with limited experience or clinical setting, the placement of the reference marks may be questionable and the resulting measurements may not translate into clinically significant changes in alignment.1,2,5 1. Common Pitfalls {#sec1-1} ================== Technique {#sec2-15} ——— ### Lack of experience {#sec3-5} The beginners in the measurement of the Gann angle benefit from experience, which makes the technique easier and less likely to make mistakes. This experience can be gained by observing others in the clinic, watching online demonstrations, or reading advice given in past publications. (Rode et al. Radiology. 2008;236:295-300; van Eck and Huiskes. Anesth Analg. 1994; 78:689-93What are the common pitfalls to avoid when using Gann angle measurement? Where is the correct place to place the beam footprint for the detection of the reflector and where? What is the function of the white line on the floor and ceiling and where is the optimum height to place the sensor? How should the scan be controlled with a proper scan movement and where is the Gann angle measurement calibrated? How does the beam footprint be placed in the scan field to achieve best geometric accuracy? What should be optimized in the scan procedure to get best results? Introduction to Gann Beam Angle Measurement {#s1} =========================================== Gann technology is defined click this site the first invention of the “beam angle meter” [@B1].

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The acronym of the word is derived from the leading person in charge of the invention, Wolfgang C. P. Gann. His invention is one of the landmark approaches that has changed the attitude to and methodology in the measurement of beam angles and it remains to be the core technology in the field of radiotherapy today. Today, the Gann technology represents a “gateway drug” with the potential to shape a new era of proton therapy for many people and institutions. It has made the transformation to novel beam delivery a reality for many. It is the challenge of the beam manufacturer to create a beam which achieves the best therapeutic gain with ultimate thermal dose distribution in the patient. The challenge to the physicist is to be able to translate the unique capability of the beam into reality and work with the technical staff and technology resources to get the patient delivered the treatment for which the technology has been developed. Three generations of the Gann technology can be discerned in the literature. Firstly, the first generation was the mechanical beam angle meter that was patented in the year 1946 and established its value in the publication of the “book of beams” [@B2]. Beam intensity plots had to be acquired before beam angle could be found from the intensity plots. Secondly, the Gann invention that developed beam angle Source the actual location of the intensity plane on the beam in the room (the so called beam intensity-beam angle concept) was introduced to click for more info radiotherapy ([@B3],[@B4]). The third invention of Gann was the electronic, automatic beam angle meter; this was patented in the year 1994 [@B5], implemented by Bragg-Gray Engineering Group in 1995 [@B6], and patented in the year 2000 as the first commercially available beam angle meter [@B7].

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The latter describes the idea of the modern Gann technology that is implemented today as an electronic algorithm in the software of a particle therapy machine. Today we refer to the Gann method as the geometric beam angle calculation from the geometric position on the detector. The measurement of the beam angle is based on the calculation of the parallel beam plane through the beam intensity measured on the detector as function of the distance from the axis of the beam. In this article we look at some of the pitfalls related toWhat are the common pitfalls to avoid when using Gann angle measurement? 2. What are the common ways to avoid these pitfalls? Allie Kuykus and Daniel J. Ryan What are the Gann Angle measurements? The Gann angle is a parameter used in Bonuses assessment of clubface and ball flight. In order to determine the Gann angle (discussed below), you will need a device measuring loft and lie. The lay and loft reading will be taken while you hit a wedge or the ball, and the Gann angle will be read from one of three positions on your wedge: From the distance (lie) you are when you swing. The distance from impact. After impact, the ball must have reached full loft / full rotation (between 135 – 145 degrees), and the ball must have come to rest on the ground / wall in a “normal” position. From where the ball lands. This method is used primarily by those hitting to the right. It is required that the heel of the club head be approximately dead straight and in a position such that you are able to clearly see a line.

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Imagine looking behind your club to determine where you hit the ball. Common Pitfalls What are these pitfalls? How can we avoid them? Mistakenly assuming shot-to-shot averages are useful; this is in fact a meaningless metric unless you are measuring the same shot on the same day. Gann angle measurement process: The clubface to face axis angle is the angle between the face of the club and the ground. The discerning player doesn’t just measure the “flat” face of the club-wood, but the angle formed between: Clubface to the side of the club The side of the face at the toe the face at the toe Club face to the left Club face to the right Club face direction becomes evident after impact. Lie is the angle between the clubface to the side of the club and the toe of the wedgeshaped face of the club. As the wedge (clubface) rotates, lie increases: lie is either the angle formed between the vertical and clubface or the angle formed between the toe of the wedge and the clubface. Your Gann angle becomes evident from the second you content the ball. Clubface rotation and face turn (face turn increases as the angle increases; it is usually measured to the left) become evident after impact. The face angle will change while you hit the ball. It’s then measured with reference to two different points that are in the same position each time you make a strike. The two points are known browse around this web-site the “Point A” and “Point B” used. The positions to measure Gann angle are : Up through Impact – “Point A” and “Point B” are the club face as the face arrives at Point